CDR Kerchner (Ret)'s Blog

April 17, 2015

Absolute Proof the Founders Knew and Accepted Vattel`s French “naturels” to mean “natural born” in English Before Constitution Was Written

Click on image for more from Teo Bear of Birthers.org

Click on image for more from Teo Bear of Birthers.org

Absolute Proof the Founders Knew and Accepted Vattel`s French “naturels” to Mean “natural born” in the American English Language Before the Constitution Was Written. And Per the Definition by Vattel It Meant – Born in the Country to Parents Who Were Both Citizens of the Country

original finding and article by Teo the Bear in 2010 at Birthers.org
with updates and comments by CDR Kerchner (Ret) of ProtectOurLiberty.org

The below French and its translation to English was found in the Library of Congress Website .  If you look at Article III in the body of the source text below, you will see in French,

Les consuls et vice consuls respectifs ne pourront être pris que parmi les sujets naturels de la puissance qui les nommera. Tous seront appointés par leur souverain respectif, et ils ne pourront en conséquence faire aucun trafic ou commerce quelconque ni pour leur propre compte, ni pour le compte d’autrui.

Going down further to the end you will find the translation to English.  See paragraph number 3 in the 1781 English translation,

The respective Consuls and Vice Consuls shall only be taken from among the natural born subjects of the power nominating them. They shall all be appointed by their respective Sovereign, and in Consequence of such appointment they shall not exercise any traffic or commerce whatsoever either on their own account, or on account of any other

Translation by Charles Thomson secretary of the Continental Congress

This is pretty convincing proof in writing predating the U.S. Constitution that the framers did not need to wait until for the 1797 translated edition of Vattel’s Law of Nations to learn that “naturels” to them meant “natural born”. It appears they were well apt to translate it themselves and understood “naturels” to mean “natural born”. This accepted translation of ‘naturel’ in 1781 even predates John Jay’s 1787 letter to George Washington by 6 years. Thus arguments otherwise as to what “naturels” meant to the founders and framers when they read the French editions of Vattel’s “Law of Nations of Principles of Natural Law” and its clear cut definition in Section 212 about types of citizenship in Vattel’s treatise (as a person born in the country of parents who were both citizens of the country) are without merit.

This finding that ‘naturels’ means ‘natural born’ in translation in 1781 was subsequently confirmed by the 1797 translation of Vattel of the part of the relevant sentence and paragraph in Vattel’s Law of Nation, Vol.1, Chapter 19, Section 212, that is, “natural-born Citizens, are those born in the country, to parents who are citizens”. Many of the founders and framers were fluent in French since it was the diplomatic language of that time. Thus when the founders and framers wrote the Constitution in 1787 they clearly knew what “natural born Citizen” meant when they upgraded the Citizenship requirement in Article II from simply being a “born Citizen” as proposed by Hamilton to that of being a “natural born Citizen” as recommended by Jay as a strong check against foreign influence on the persons in the future who would be President and Commander of the military. And that meaning was understood to be a person born in the country to parents who are Citizens of the country. Such a person has sole allegiance and unity of citizenship at birth to only the United States. That was the intent of the founders and framers for that legal term of art, natural born Citizen, in Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the U.S. Constitution. This restriction on the type of Citizen who could be President was a national security issue to them back then and it is still a national security issue to us now.]

From the Library of Congress

Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789
FRIDAY, JULY 27, 1781

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Link to date-related documents.

A memorial from the honorable. the Minister of France was read, accompanied with the plan of a convention for regulating the powers and duties of consuls and vice consuls.

MEMOIRE

Philadelphia, July 26, 1781.

The twenty-ninth article of the treaty of amity and commerce, between his Most Christian Majesty and the United States, reserves to the two contracting powers “the liberty of having each in the ports of the other, consuls, vice consuls, agents and commissaries, whose functions shall be regulated by a particular agreement.” In consequence of this stipulation, the Court of Versailles has caused a draft to be made of a convention, relative to the establishment of consuls, which the undersigned minister plenipotentiary of France has the honour to communicate to Congress. It is the desire of his Majesty, that this draft should be examined by Congress; and those points marked which admit of no difficulty; and that the others should be submitted to the examination of delegates appointed by both parties, who may make such observations as they shall judge proper, and propose such alterations as they may think convenient. These objects will require discussion in repeated conferences; and the undersigned intreats that Congress would determine in what manner these conferences shall be held. The proposed convention requires the most mature consideration of both parties; while at the same time it is equally the interest of both, with all speed, to introduce consistency and uniformity into their respective commercial establishments; and the undersigned is of opinion that Congress will think it


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necessary to prosecute this business with all possible despatch.

(Signed)Le Chev. de la Luzerne.1

[Note 1: 1 This version is taken from the printed Secret Journal, Foreign Affairs; it is also printed in the Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution (Wharton), IV, 604. Another translation is in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 25, II, folio 17.]

Projet de Convention entre le Roi Très Chértien, et les Etats Unis de l’Amérique Septentrionale, à l’effet de déterminer et fixer les fonctions et prérogatives des Consuls, Vice Consuls, et des Agens respectifs.

Le roi très chrétien, et les Etats Unis de l’Amérique Septentrionale, s’étant accordés, mutuellement, par l’article 29 du traité d’amitié et de commerce conclu entre eux, la faculté de tenir dans leurs états respectifs, des consuls, vice consuls, et des agens, et voulant en conséquence déterminer, et fixer d’une maniére réciproque et permanente les fonctions et prérogatives des dits consuls, vice consuls, et des agens respectifs, il a été convenu ce qui suit.

ARTICLE I

Les consuls, et vice consuls nommés par le roi très chrétien, et les Etats Unis, seront tenus de présenter leurs provisions à leur artivée dans leurs états respectifs. On leur délivrera, sans aucun frais, l’exequatur nécessaire à l’exercice de leurs fonctions et sur l’exhibition qu’ils feront du dit exequatur, les gouverneurs, présidens, commandans, chefs de justice, les corps des tribunaux ou autres officiers, ayant autorité dans les ports et lieux de leur consulats, les y feront jouit, aussitot, et sans difficulté, des pré-éminences, autorité et priviléges accordés réciproquement sans qu’ils puissent


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exiger des dits consuls, et vice consuls aucun droit sous aucun prétexte quelconque.

ARTICLE II

Les consuls respectifs auront la faculté d’établir des vice consuls dans les différens ports et lieux de leur département ou le besoin l’éxigera. On leur délivrera également l’exequatur nécessaire à l’exercice de leurs fonctions et sur l’exhibition qu’ils feront du dit exequatur ils seront admis et reconnus dans les termes et selon les pouvoirs, autorité et priviléges stipulés par les articles 1, 5, et 6, de la présente convention.

ARTICLE III

Les consuls et vice consuls respectifs ne pourront être pris que parmi les sujets naturels de la puissance qui les nommera. Tous seront appointés par leur souverain respectif, et ils ne pourront en conséquence faire aucun trafic ou commerce quelconque ni pour leur propre compte, ni pour le compte d’autrui.

ARTICLE IV

Les consuls respectifs pourront établir des agens dans les différens ports et lieux de leur département, où le besoin l’éxigera. Les agens pourront être choisis parrot les négocians nationaux ou étrangers et taunts de brevets de l’un des dits consuls; ils se renfermeront respectivement à rendre aux commerçans, navigateurs, et batimens respectifs, tous les services possibles et informer le consul ou vice consul le plus proche des besoins des dits commerçans, navigateurs et batimens, sans que les dits agens puissent autrement participer


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aux immunités, droits et privilèges attribués aux consuls et vice consuls par la présente convention.

ARTICLE V

Les consuls et vice consuls, les officiers du consulat, et généralement toutes les personnes attachées aux fonctions consulaires jouiront respectivement d’une pleine et entière immunité pour leurs personnes, leurs papiers, et leurs maisons. Ils seront exempts de tout service personnel et offices publics, logement de gens de guerre, milice, guet, garde, tutelle, curatelle, ainsi que de tous droits, taxes, impositions, charges quelconques, hors les biens fonds, dont ils seront propriètaires, les quels seront assujettis aux taxes imposées sur les biens de tous autres particuliers. Ils pourront faire placer sur la porte extérieure de leur maison les armes de leur souverain, sans cependant que cette marque distinctive puisse donner à la dire maison le droit d’azile pour aucun malfaiteur ou criminel de manière que Ie cas arrivant oû aucun malfaiteur ou criminel s’y refugierait il sera rendu sur le champ à la première réquisition et sans difficulté.

ARTICLE VI

Les consuls ou les vice consuls respectifs, dans les lieux ou il n’y aura pas de consuls pourront avoir dans leur maison une chapelle pour y célébrer le service divin, et le roi très chrétien ainsi que les Etats Unis, donneront des ordres précis et effectifs dans les ports et lieux de leur domination pour qu’il ne soit apporté aucun retard ni empêchement lors de la cérémonie, des obséques et funérailles des sujets de l’une des deux nations, qui seront décédés dans l’étendue des terres de l’autre.


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ARTICLE VII

Dans tous les cas généralement quelconques concernant la police ou l’administration de la justice, oû il sera nécessaire d’avoir une déclaration juridique des consuls et vice consuls respectiffs, le gouverneur, le commandant, le chef de la justice, les corps des tribunaux ou autres officiers quelconques de leur résidence respective y ayant autorité, seront tenus de les en prévenir en leur écrivant, ou en leur envoyant un officier militaire ou civil, pour leur faire connoître, soit l’objet que l’on se propose soit la nécessité dans la quelle on se trouve d’aller chez eux pour leur demander cette déclaration, et les dits consuls, ou vice consuls seront tenus de leur côté de se prêter loyalement à ce qu’on désirera d’eux dans ces occasions.

ARTICLE VIII

Les consuls, et vice consuls respectifs, pourront établir une chancellerie ou seront déposés les actes et les dé1iberations consulaires, tous les effets délaissés par défunts, ou sauvés des naufrages, ainsi que les testamens, obligations, contrats, et généralement tous les actes et procédures faits, entre leurs nationaux. Ils pourront en conséquence commettre à l’exercice de la dire chancellerie des personnes capables les recevoir; leur faire prêter serment, leur donner la garde du sçeau, et le droit de sceller les commissions, jugemens, et autres actes du consular, ainsi que d’y remplir les fonctions de notaires et greffiers.

ARTICLE IX.

Les consuls, et vice consuls respectifs auront le droit exclusif de recevoir dans leur chancellerie, ou abord


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des bâtimens, les dàclarations et tous les autres actes, que les capitaines, patrons, équipages passagers, et nàgotians, de leur nation, voudront y passer, même leur testamens et autres dispositions de derniere volonté, et les expèditions des dits actes duement légalisées par les dits consuls ou vice consuls et munis du sçeau de leur consulat feront foi, en justice, dans tous les tribunaux de France, et des Etats Unis. Ils auront aussi, et exclusivement, le droit de faire l’inventaire, la liquidation, et de procéder à la vente des effets mobiliers de la succcession des sujets de leur nation qui viendront mourir dans les états respectifs. Ils y procéderont avec l’assistance de deux négotians de leur dite nation, leur choix, et feront déposer dans leur chancellerie les effets, et papiers, des dites successions, sans qu’aucun des officiers militaires, de justice, ou de police, du pays puissent les y troubler, ni y intervenir de quelque manière que ce soit: Mais les dits consuls et vice consuls ne pourront faire la déivrance, des successions et de leur produit aux héritiers légitimes où à leurs mandataires, qu’après avoir fait acquitter toutes les dettes que les défunts auront pu avoir contractées dans le pays par jugement, par actes, ou par billets dont l’écriture et la signature seront reconnues et certifiées, par deux notables négotians de la nation des dits défunts, et dans tous autres cas le payement des dettes ne pourra être ordnné qu’en donnant, par le créancier, caution suffisante, et domiciliée de rendre les sommes induëment peréues, principal, interéts, et frais, lesquelles cautions cependant, demeureront duëment déchargées apràs une année en terns de paix, et deux en terns de guerre; si la demande en décharge ne peut êtré formée avant ces dé1ais contre les héritiers qui si présenteront.


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ARTICLE X

Les consuls et vice consuls respectifs, recevront les déclarations, et les consulats de tous capitaines et patrons de leur nation respective, pour raison d’avaries essuyées à la mer par des voyes d’eau ou jets de marchandise, même lorsqu’il y aura des négotians étrangers intéréssés dans la cargaison; ou ces capitaines et patrons remettront dans la chancellerie des dits consuls et vice consuls les consulats qu’ils auront faits dans autres ports pour les accidens, qui leur seront arrives pendant leur voyage; et dans les deux cas, les dits consuls et vice consuls respectifs, régleront l’avarie sans délai par des experts, de leur nation qu’ils nommeront d’office; et par des experts d’une partie de leur nation et l’autre d’étrangers dans le cas ou un étranger sera interessé dans la cargaison.

ARTICLE XI

Dans le cas ou par tempête, ou autre accident, des vaisseaux ou batimens François échöueront sur les côtes des Etats Unis, et des vaisseaux ou batimens des Etats Unis echöueront sur les côtes de France, le consul ou le vice consul le plus proche du lieu de naufrage pourra faire tout ce qu’il jugera conyenable tant pour sauver le dit vaisseau ou batiment, son chargement et appartenances, que pour le magazinage et la sureté des effets sauvés et marchandises: Il pourra en faire l’inventaire sans qu’aucun officiers militaires, des douanes, de la justice, ou de la police du pays puissent s’y immiscer autrement que pour faciliter aux consuls, et vice consuls, capitaine et équipage du vaisseau naufragé, ou échoué, tous les secours et faveurs qu’ils leur demanderont, soit pour la célérité et la sureté du sauvetage, et des effets sauvés, soit pour éviter les désordres qui


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n’accompagnent que trop souvent ces accidents. Pour prévenir même toute espàce de conflit et de discussion dans les dits cas de naufrage, il a été convenu, que lors qu’il ne se trouvera pas de consul ou de vice consul pour fairs travailler au sauvetage, ou que la résidence du dit consul ou vice consul qui ne se trouvera pas sur le lieu du naufrage, sera plus éloignée du dit lieu que celle du juge territorial compétent, ce dernier y fera procéder sur le champ avec toute célérité, la sureté et les précautions prescrites par les loix respectives, sauf au dit juge territorial à se retirer; le consul ou vice consul survenant, et à lui remettre les procédures par lui faites, dont le consul ou vice consul lui fera rembourser les frais. Les marchandises sauvées devront étre déposées à la douane la plus prochaine avec l’inventaire qui en aura été dressé par le consul ou vice consul, ou en leur absence par le juge qui en aura connu; pour, les dites marchandises, être ensuite délivrées, aprés le pré1evement des frais et sans forme de procès aux proprietaires, qui munis de la main levée du consul ou vice consul le plus prochain les réclameront par eux mêmes ou par leur mandataires; soit pour reporter les marchandises, et dans ce cas elles ne payeront aucune espàce de droit de sortie; soit pour les vendre dans le pays, si elles n’y sont pas prohibées, et dans ce cas, les dites marchandises se trouvant avariées on leur accordera une modération sur les droits d’entrée proportionée au domage souffert, lequel sera constaté par le procè verbal dressé lors du naufrage et de l’échouement.

ARTICLE XII

Les consuls et vice consuls du roi très chrétien, ètablis dans les Etats Unis, et les consuls et vice consuls des Etats Unis ètablis en France, y exerceront la police sur


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tous les batimens de leurs nations respectives et auront abord des dits batimens tout pouvoir et jurisdiction dans toutes les discussions qui pourront y survenir. Ils auront une entiàre inspection sur les dits batimens, leurs équipages, les changemens, et les remplacemens à y faire, ainsi que pour tout ce qui concernera leur navigation, et l’observation de leurs loix, ordonnances, réglemens respectifs. Ils pourfont se transporter abord des batimens de leur nation arrivant dans les ports, havres ou fades respectifs, et ce aussi souvent qu’ils le jugeront apropos pour l’acquit de leur charge sans qu’aucun officiers des douanes, de police, ou autres puissent les en empêcher. Ils pourront faire arrêter tout batiment portant le pavillon de leur nation respective, le faire séquestrer, et même, le renvoyer respectivement de France dans les Etats Unis et des Etats Unis en France, et faire arrêter sans difficulté tout capitaine patron, matelot ou passager de leur dire nation respective. Ils pourront réclamer les matelots, déserteurs, et les vagabonds de leur nation respective, les faire arrêter et détenir dans le pays ou les renvoyer et faire transporter hors du pays. Il suffira que les consuls ou vice consuls respectifs, puissent justifier que ces matelots, déserteurs et vagabonds de telle nation qu’ils puissent être d’ailleurs, sont inscrits, sur leur registre ou portés sur le rôle de l’équipage, et l’une ou l’autre de ces deux pièces étant suffisantes pour fonder la validité de la réclamation, de la détention, et de la déportation des dits matelots, déserteurs, et vagabonds, aucun d’iceux, François ou Américain ne pourra dans les pays respectifs par lui même ou par autrui réclamer les loix ou l’autorité locale, interdisant sur ce toute connoissance à tous tribunaux, juges et officiers quelconques. Dans tous ces cas, les dits matelots, déserteurs et vagabonds seront


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remis aux réclamants, quelques soient leurs engagements, et ils ne pourront devenir engagés, retenus ou soustraits en aucune maniàre quelconque et par qui ce soit, nationaux ou étrangers à la perquisition que les dits consuls ou vice consuls, en feront faire par personnes autorisées par eux et chargées d’une réquisition signée d’eux; et pour l’éxécution de toutes les dispositions ce dessus les gouverneurs, commandans, chefs de la justice, les corps des tribunaux ou autres officiers des pays respectifs y ayant autorité, seront tenus et obliges de préter main forte aux consuls et vice consuls respectifs et sur une simple réquisition signée d’eux sauf à faire arrêter, détenir et garder dans les prisons à la disposition et aux frais des dits consuls et vice consuls, les matelots, déserteurs, et les vagabonds réclames jusqu’ à ce qu’ils ayent occasion de les faire embarquer et sortir du pays. Et si les dits matelots, déserteurs, et vagabonds dans la vue d’éluder leur renvoi alliguaient qu’ils veulent retourner à leur patrie pour devenir sujets de S. M. T. C. ou des Etats Unis, respectivement, on n’aura aucun égard à cette assertion.

ARTICLE XIII

Dans les cas ou les sujets respectifs auront commis quelque crime contre quelqu’un des habitans du pays, qui mérite punition exemplair, ils seront justiciables des juges du pays.

ARTICLE XIV

Les consuls et vice consuls du roi T. C. ètablis dans les Etats Unis, et les consuls et vice consuls des Etats Unis ètablis en France, y connoîtront, à l’exclusion des tribunaux du pays, de tous les différens et procès, qui pourront naître à terre entre les capitaines, patrons,


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équipages, passagers et commçerans de leur nation respective. Ils les accorderont amiablement ou les jugeront sommairement, et sans frais, pour l’appel de leur jugemens être porté respectivement aux tribunaux de France et des Etats Unis, qui jugent en dernier ressort, et qui devront en connoître. Ils exerceront ces fonctions de justice, priveé, ou de police nécessaire sans qu’aucun des officiers militaires, de justice ou de police du pays, puissent s’y immiscer et y intervenir en aucune manière. Dans tous les cas ou il surviendra aussi entre les négotians François demeurant en France, et leur compatriotes établis ous la protection du roi très chrérien dans les Etats Unis, des différens procès pour raison de leur commerce, ainsi qu’il en surviendra de même entre les négotians Américains domiciliés dans les Etats Unis, et leurs compatriotes établés sous la protection des Etas Unis dans le royuame de France, pareillement pour raison de leur commerce, les dits différens et procès seront insfruits et jugés, sommairement et sans frais, entre eux, chacun par le consul ou vice consul de leur nation respective et les appels du jugement portés aux tribunaux respectifs qui jugent en dernier ressort, soit en France, soit dans les Etats Unis. A l’égard des autres différens et procès, qui pourront naître entre les sujets du roi T. C. et ceux des Etats Unis, dans les etats respectifs, soit comme demandeurs, soit comme défendeurs, les uns envers les autres tant a l’occasion des fournitures, marchès, trafic, qu’ils feront ensembles, et des soldes qui en résulteront, que des lettres de change, assurances, avaries, faillities et de toutes autres causes civiles, et criminelles, relatives au commerce, ils seront portés dans le pays devant les tribunaux que devront en connoître en première instance et par appel, sans que sous aucune prétexte les consuls et vice consuls respectifs putssent s’y immiscer en aucune manière.


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ARTICLE XV

L’utilité générale du commerce ayant fait établir en France des tribunaux et des formes particulières pour accélérer la décision des affaires de commerce, les négotians Américains jouiront du bénéfice de ces établissemens en France, et les Etats Unis procureront des avantages équivalents et coincidents avec ces tribunaux et ces formes en faveur des négotians François dans les affaires de même nature.

ARTICLE XVI

Les sujets du roi très chrétien, et ceux des Etats Unis, qui justifieront être du corps de la nation respective, le certificat du consul ou vice consul du district faisant mention de leurs noms, surnoms, et du lieu de leur établissement comme inscrits dans les registres du consulat, ne pourront perdre pour telle cause que ce soit dans les domaines et états respectifs, la qualité de sujets du pays dont ils sont originaires, conformement à l’article 11 du traité d’amitié et de commerce du 6 Fevrier 1778, dont les présent article servira d’interprétation en cas de besoin; et les dits sujets respectifs jouiront, en conséquence, de l’exemption de tous services personnels dans le lieu de leur établissement, et en outre, ils ne pourront y être assujettis à aucune taxe relative à l’industrie.

ARTICLE XVII

Toutes les stipulations ci dessus fondées sur une exacte réciprocité, serviront dorénavant de regles, fixes, et invariables pour tous les objets, sur lesquels elles portent; mais si quelque autre nation conserve ou acquiert à tel titre que ce soit, ou en vertu d’une convention quelconque, un traitement plus favorable soit en


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France, soit dans les Etats Unis, relativement aux consuls, vice consuls et agens, et à leur pré-éminences, pouvoirs, autorité et priviléges, les consuls, vice consuls et agens du roi très chrétien dans les Etats Unis, et les consuls, vice consuls et agens des Etats Unis en Frances y participeront aux termes stipulés par l’article 11 du dit traité d’amitié et de commerce conclu entre le roi très chrétien et les Etats Unis.

ARTICLE XVIII

Les ratifications de la présente convention, seront données en bonne forme et échangées de part et d’autre dans l’espace de six mois, ou plutôt si faire se peut.

En roy de quoi, &c.

Conforme à l’original resté par devers nous.

Le Chevalier de la Luzerne.

A Philadelphie le 24 Juillet, 1781.1

[Note 1: 1 This memorial and plan of convention were entered only in the manuscript Secret Journal, Foreign Affairs. The following translation, in Charles Thomson’s hand, was the paper considered by Congress. It is in the Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 25, II, folio 21.
[Translation]
A Plan of a Convention
Between the Most Christian King and the United States of North America, for the purpose of determining and fixing the functions and prerogatives of their respective Consuls, Vice Consuls and Agents.
The Most Christian King and the thirteen United States of North America, having mutually granted to each other by the 29 article of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce concluded between them the power of keeping in their respective States Consuls, Vice Consuls and agents, and being willing in consequence thereof to determine and fix in a lasting manner, and on terms of equality the functions and prerogatives of the said Consuls, Vice Consuls and Agents, have agreed as follows:
ARTICLE 1
The Consuls and Vice Consuls named by the Most Christian King and the United States, shall be obliged to present their appointments on their arrival in the respective States, and there shall be delivered to them the exequatur necessary for the exercise of their functions, and upon the exhibition which they shall make of that exequatur, the Governors, Presidents, Commandants, Chief Judges, Magistrates of the place tribunals and other officers exercising authority in the ports and places of their Consulships shall cause them to enjoy there immediately and without difficulty the preéminences authority and privileges mutually granted, without exacting from the said Consuls and Vice Consuls any duty or emoluments, under any pretext whatsoever.
2
The Respective Consuls shall have power to establish Vice Consuls in the different Ports and places within their departments, where necessary: There shall in like manner be delivered to them the exequator necessary for the exercise of their functions, and upon the exhibition which they shall make of the said exequatur, they shall be admitted and recognized in the terms and according to the Powers, authority and privileges stipulated by the 1, 5, and 6 articles of this present Convention.
3
The respective Consuls and Vice Consuls shall only be taken from among the natural born subjects of the power nominating them. They shall all be appointed by their respective Sovereign, and in Consequence of such appointment they shall not exercise any traffic or commerce whatsoever either on their own account, or on account of any other
4
The respective Consuls shall have power to establish agents in the different Ports and places within their department where necessary. These agents may be chosen from among the Merchants of their nation or strangers, and shall be furnished with a Commission from one of the said Consuls, and shall respectively Be authorized to render to their respective merchants seamen and vessels all possible service, and to inform the nearest Consul or Vice Consul of the wants of the said merchants, seamen and vessels; but the said agents shall not in any respect participate in the immunities, rights and privileges granted to Consuls and Vice Consuls by the present Convention. Nor shall they exact any duty by virtue of their appointment under any pretence whatsoever.
5
The Consuls and Vice Consuls the officers of the consulship and generally all persons attached to the Consular functions shall respectively enjoy a full and entire immunity for their persons papers and houses. They shall be exempted from all personal service, and public offices, from finding quarters for soldiers, from militia duties, from watch, ward, guardianship curatelle, and from all duties, taxes, imposts and charges whatsoever, save on real estates which they shall own, which shall be subject to the Taxes imposed on the estates of all other individuals. They shall be at liberty to fix upon the outer door of their house the arms of their Sovereign, provided always that this mark of distinction, shall not give to the said house the right of asylum to any malefactor or criminal, who shall take refuge there; but he shall be immediately delivered up on the first requisition and without any difficulty.
6
The Most Christian King and also the United States, shall give precise and effectual orders in the ports and places within their jurisdiction, that no let or hindrance be given to the funeral rites and obsequies of any subject of the one or the other nation, who shall die within the territories of the other.
7
In all cases, generally whatever respecting the police and administration of justice, where it shall be necessary to have a judicial declaration of the said Consuls and Vice Consuls respectively, the Governor, President, Commandant, Chief Judges Magistrates of the place, tribunals or other officers whatever at their respective residence or Consulate having authority there shall be bound to give them notice thereof in writing r by sending to them a civil or military officer to inform them of the object in view and the necessity there is of going to them, and demanding from them that declaration, and the said Consuls and Vice Consuls, shall be bound on their part, readily and bona fide to do what shall be required of them on those occasions.
8
The respective Consuls and Vice Consuls shall have power to establish a Chancery, for depositing the Consular acts and deliberations, the effects left by persons deceased or saved from shipwreck, also the testaments, obligations, contracts, and in general all the acts and proceedings made and done by or between people of their nation. They shall of consequence have power to appoint capable persons to manage that Chancery, to admit them into office, to administer an oath to them, to give them the keeping of the Seal, and the right of sealing the Commissions, judgements and other acts of consulship and also to execute the office of Notaries and scribes.
9
The respective Consuls and Vice Consuls shall have the exclusive right of receiving in their Chancery or on board of vessels the declarations and all other acts, which the captains, masters, seamen, passengers and merchants of their nation shall be willing to give there, and their testament and other dispositions of a last will, and the copies of the said acts duly authenticated by the said Consuls or Vice Consuls, and under the seal of their Consulship shall be admitted in all Courts of Justice in France and the United States. They shall also have the exclusive right of making inventories and liquidating accounts and of proceeding to the sale of the personal effects left by the subjects of their nation who shall happen to die in the respective States. They shall proceed therein, with the assistance of two merchants of their said nation whom they shall choose and shall cause to be deposited in their Chancery the effects and papers of the said successions, nor shall any officer civil or military, of justice, or of the police of the Country be allowed to give them any interruption or disturbance whatever. But the said Consuls and Vice Consuls, shall not be at liberty to deliver up the property or the produce thereof, to the lawful heirs or their attorneys, until they have caused to be discharged all the debts which the deceased may have contracted in the Country by judgment by acts or by bills, the writing and signature of which shall be proved and certified by two noted merchants of the nation of the said deceased, and in all other cases the payment of debts shall not be ordained, but upon the creditors giving sufficient security by a Bondsman resident there, to return the sums unduly received, both principal interest and costs, which securities however shall be duly discharged after one year in time of peace, and after two years in time of war, if a demand in discharge cannot before that time be made against the heirs who shall appear.
10
The respective Consuls and Vice Consuls shall receive the declarations and protests of all Captains and Masters of their respective nations on account of damages at sea by leakage or throwing goods overboard, even though Foreign Merchants are interested in the Cargo; or the Captains and masters shall lodge in the Chancery of the said Consuls and Vice Consuls the protests, which they shall make in other Ports on account of the accidents that have happened to them during their voyage; and in both cases the said Consuls and Vice Consuls respectively shall settle the damage without delay by experienced persons of their nation whom they shall name ex officio and by experienced persons equally of each nation, where a stranger is interested in the cargo.
11
In case either by tempest or other accident, the ships or vessels of France shall be wrecked on the Coast of the United States, or the ships or vessels of the United States shall be wrecked on the Coast of France, the Consul or Vice Consul nearest to the place of shipwreck, shall have power to do whatever he shall judge proper, as well for saving the ship or vessel, her cargo and appurtenances as for storing and securing the effects and merchandize saved. tie shall have power to take an inventory of them, nor shall any military officers nor officers of the Customs, or naval officers nor officers of Justice or of the police of the Country be allowed to interfere farther than by affording to the Consuls and Vice Consuls, the Captain and Crew of the vessel wrecked or stranded all the assistance and favour required of them either for the speedily saving and securing the effects, or for preventing the disorders, which too frequently accompany such accidents, to prevent all Interference of jurisdictions in case of shipwrecks, it is agreed that where there is no Consul or Vice Consul to assist in saving the wreck, or where the residence of the said Consul or Vice Consul not being at the place shall be farther distant than that of a competent territorial judge, this latter shall immediately promote with all expedition, the saving the wreck and the measures prescribed by their respective laws, provided always, that the Territorial Judge shall retire upon the coming of the Consul or Vice Consul, to whom he shall transfer the whole and commit the farther prosecution of the measures by him taken and the Consul or Vice Consul shall reimburse him the expences incurred. The merchandize saved shall be deposited in the nearest custom house or other nearest place of security, if there shall be no custom house, with an inventory made out by the Consul or Vice Consul, or in their absence by the judge who shall have had cognizance thereof, in order that the said merchandizes may after payment of the expence be afterwards delivered without any formal process to the owners, who being furnished with a release from the nearest Consul or Vice Consul shall reclaim them in person or by attorney, either for the purpose of reexporting the merchandizes, in which case they shall not pay any kind of duties on exportation, or for the purpose of selling them in the country, if they are not there prohibited, and in this case the said merchandize being damaged an abatement shall be made on the import duties proportioned to the damage suffered, which shall be determined by the verbal process stated at the time of the wreck or stranding.
12
The Consuls and Vice Consuls of the Most Christian King established in the United States, and the Consuls and Vice Consuls of the United States in France, shall there exercise the police over all the vessels of their respective nations, and shall have on board the said vessels all power and jurisdiction in all discussions which can arise there. They shall have the entire inspection over the said vessels, their crews, the changes and the recompenses for making them, and also for whatever shall concern their navigation, and the observance of their respective laws ordinances and regulations.
They shall be at liberty to go on board the vessels of their nation arriving in the respective ports havens and roads, and that as often as they shall judge necessary for the performance of their office, nor shall any officers of the customs, or of the police or any other persons whatever prevent them.
They shall be at liberty to arrest and sequester all the vessels carrying the flag of their respective nation, and even to send them back respectively from France to the United States, and from the United States to France, and to arrest without any difficulty every captain master, seaman or passenger of their respective nation.
They shall be at liberty to reclaim sailors, deserters and the vagabonds of their respective nation, and to arrest and detain them in the country or to send them away and cause them to be transported out of the country: It shall be sufficient that the Consuls or Vice Consuls respectively can prove that the sailors, deserters and vagabonds, of what nation soever they be are inserted in the registers, or entered on the roll of the crew, and the one or other of these two pieces being sufficient to establish the validity of the claim and detention and of the transportation of the said seamen, deserters and vagabonds, none of them whether French or American shall in the respective countries either by himself or others, be at liberty to claim the benefit of the laws or authority of the country, all tribunals, judges and officers whatsoever being interdicted from all cognizance thereof. In all these cases, the said seamen, deserters and vagabonds shall be delivered to the reclaimers, whatever may be their engagements, and they shall not be engaged, detained or withdrawn in any manner, or by any person whatever, whether natives or foreigners, upon the requisition which the said Consuls or Vice Consuls shall cause to be made by persons authorised by them and entrusted with the requisition signed by them.
And for the execution of all the regulations above-mentioned, the governors, commandants, chief judges, magistrates of the place, tribunals, and other officers of the respective countries having authority there, shall be held and bound to assist the respective Consuls and Vice Consuls, and upon a simple requisition signed by them, saving the power of arresting, to detain and keep in prison, at the disposal and cost of the said Consuls and Vice Consuls, the sailors, deserters and vagabonds reclaimed, until they shall have an opportunity of putting them on board and sending them out of the country.
13
In case the subjects respectively shall commit any crime against any inhabitants of the country which deserves exemplary punishment, they shall be tried by the judges of the country.
14
The Consuls and Vice Consuls of the Most Christian King established in the United States, and the Consuls and Vice Consuls of the United States established in France shall to the exclusion of the tribunals of the country have cognizance there of all differences and processes which shall arise on land between the captains, masters, crews, passengers and traders of their respective nations. They shall settle them in an amicable manner, or decide them summarily and without costs, and the appeal from their judgments shall be carried respectively to the tribunals of France and the United States, that judge in the last resort and that ought to have cognizance thereof. They shall exercise these offices of private justice and of necessary police, nor shall any military officer, nor any officer of justice or of police in the country intermeddle or interpose in any manner whatever.
In case any differences or suits on account of their commerce shall happen either between French merchants living in France and their countrymen settled under the protection of the most Christian King in the United States, or between the American merchants dwelling in the United States and their countrymen settled under the protection of the United States in the Kingdom of France, the said differences and suits shall be brought to trial and decided between them in a summary way and without expence by the Consul or Vice Consul of their respective nation, and the appeals from their judgment shall be to the respective tribunals which judge in the last resort, whether in France or in the United States.
With respect to all other differences and suits that may arise between the subjects of the Most Christian King and those of the United States in the respective countries either as plaintiffs or defendents one against another, as well on account of bargains and traffic one with another and the payments to be made in consequence thereof, as for bills of exchange, insurances, damages at sea, bankruptcies, and all other causes civil and criminal relative to commerce, they shall be prosecuted in the country before the tribunals which ought to take cognizance thereof in the first instance and by appeal nor shall the respective Consuls and Vice Consuls under any pretence intermeddle therein in any manner.
15
The general advantage of commerce having given occasion to establish in France certain tribunals and particular forms for the speedy determination of commercial matters, the American merchants shall enjoy the benefits of those establishments in France and the United States shall procure equal advantages coinciding with the tribunals and forms in favor of the French merchants in matters of the same nature.
16
The subjects of the Most Christian King and those of the United States, who shall prove that they are under the laws of their respective nation, the certificate of the Consul or Vice Consul of the district mentioning their names surnames and place of abode as inserted in the registers of the Consulship, shall not for any cause whatever lose in the respective dominions and States, the quality of subjects of the country to which they originally belong, conformably to the 11 article of the treaty of amity and commerce of the 6 Feby. 1778, of which this present article shall serve for an interpretation if occasion require, and the said subjects respectively shall consequently enjoy an exemption from all personal services in the place of their residence and moreover they shall not be subject to any tax relative to labour.
17
All the stipulations abovementioned being founded on an exact reciprocity shall henceforth serve for regulating fixing and rendering invariable all the objects to which they relate. But if any other Nation enjoys, or acquires under any title or in virtue of any convention whatever a more favorable treatment either in France or in the United States with regard to Consuls, Vice Consuls and agents, and their preëminences powers authority and privileges, the Consuls, Vice Consuls and agents of the most Christian King in the United States, and the Consuls, Vice Consuls and agents of the United States in France shall participate therein, agreeably to the terms of the 11 article of the said treaty of amity and commerce, concluded between the Most Christian King and the United States.
18
The ratifications of this present convention shall be delivered in good form and exchanged by one party and by the other in the space of 6 months or sooner if possible In testimony whereof &c. agreeable to the original remaining with us.
Philadelphia the 24th July. 1781.
(Signed)Le Chev. de la Luzerne.]

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[Sheriff Arpaio – Obama ID Docs Fraudulent – Congress Must Act!]

[Sheriff Mack – Obama ID Documents Are Fake!]

Click on image for details

Click on image for details about Obama’s forged Draft Registration Card. Copy obtained via FOIA request.

Click on the Image for Details about Obama's Forged Birth Certificate and Selective Service (Draft) Registration Form

Click on image for details re Obama’s forged long-form birth certificate proffered as an on-line image in Apr 2011.

Download a “Sheriff’s Kit” package of evidence of Obama ID document fraud: http://www.wheresobamasbirthcertificate.com and/or WOBC2.com

Copy of AZ Sheriff’s Office CCP Commander & Chief Investigator Michael Zullo’s sworn affidavit attesting that Obama’s ID docs are forged: http://www.scribd.com/doc/141560833/

Copy of evidence that Obama’s Selective Service (Draft) Registration Card is forged: http://www.scribd.com/doc/164956489/

View and get the Maricopa County AZ Sheriff Joe Arpaio’s Cold Case Posse Investigative Reports directly from their website about Obama’s forged ID docs: http://www.mcsoccp.org/joomla/

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Obama the Enigma: Click on the image to learn more about Obama he does not want you to know.

Obama the Enigma: Click on the image to learn more about Obama he does not want you to know.

Obama's short form and long form birth documents are forgeries

Image of Obama’s short-torm birth certificate proffered as an on-line image in Jun 2008. Obama’s short-form and long-form birth documents are forgeries

A warning from the past — some conspiracies are very real and are also large and well organized and in process for a long time. Such is the nature of old-school KGB and SDS Communist activities, and more recently Marxist-Fascist groups temporarily allied with Radical Political Islamist activities, in the USA. My enemy’s enemy is my friend is the old adage. And to the Marxist and Islamist a strong USA is the enemy. The target and goal of the seditious political conspiracy we are currently faced with is to destroy our U.S. Constitution, our Republic, our culture, and dramatically weaken our military. Remember this quote from history. But when reading it today substitute Marxist-Facist or Islamist for the current threats we face: “We must now face the harsh truth that the objectives of communism [anti-American Marxist-Leninist-Fascism allied against us with Radical Political Islam] are being steadily advanced because many of us do not recognize the means used to advance them. … The individual is handicapped by coming face to face with a Conspiracy so monstrous he cannot believe it exists. The American mind simply has not come to a realization of the evil which has been introduced into our midst.” Quote by: J. Edgar Hoover former FBI director. Source: Elks Magazine (August 1956). His message applies today equally as well as it did when he stated it in 1956.

Marxist/Communists are trained to lie. It’s their modus operandi to deceive their true objectives. Obama is not just a pathological liar, he’s an ideological liar: http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2013/12/obama_is_not_a_pathological_liar_he_is_an_ideological_liar.html

Obama lies continually to cover his true nature and objectives. Obama named Liar of the Year. Obama is a secret member of Muslim Brotherhood. They are trained to lie and they using the Islamic principles of TAQIYYA and KITMAN on steroids to hide their anti-American activities.

CDR Charles Kerchner, P.E. (Retired)
Lehigh Valley PA USA
http://www.protectourliberty.org/
https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/
http://www.scribd.com/protectourliberty/collections/

P.S. Also read this essay regarding the constitutional term in the presidential eligibility clause “natural born Citizen” and basic logic, i.e., trees are plants but not all plants are trees. Natural born Citizens are a subset of “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” but not all “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” are “natural born Citizens”: https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/of-natural-born-citizens-and-citizens-at-birth-and-basic-logic-trees-are-plants-but-not-all-plants-are-trees-natural-born-citizens-nbc-are-citizens-at-birth-cab-but-not-all-cab/ … AND … http://www.art2superpac.com/issues.html Also watch this video by the renowned constitutional scholar Dr. Herb Titus — Part I: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=esiZZ-1R7e8 and Part II: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoaZ8WextxQ

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September 17, 2014

Constitution Day – 17 Sep 2014: A Lesson from History. Is Being a Born Citizen of the United States Sufficient Citizenship Status to be President? The Founders and Framers Emphatically Decided It Was Not! | by CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret)

Obama Not Constitutionally Eligible to be the President and Commander of our Military.  Click Image for the Proof.

Obama Not Constitutionally Eligible to be the President and Commander of our Military. Click Image for the Proof.

Constitution Day – 17 Sep 2014: A Lesson from History. Is Being Born a Citizen (Citizen at/by Birth) of the United States of Sufficient Citizenship Status to be President of the United States and Commander in Chief of Our Military? The Founders and Framers Emphatically Decided … It Was Not!

By: CDR Charles F. Kerchner, Jr., P.E. (Retired)
17 September 2014 – Constitution Day

During the process of developing a new U.S. Constitution Alexander Hamilton submitted a suggested draft for a Constitution on June 18, 1787. At some point, he also suggested to the framers a proposal for the qualification requirements in Article II as to the necessary Citizenship status for the office of President and Commander in Chief of the Military.

Alexander Hamilton’s suggested presidential eligibility clause:

“No person shall be eligible to the office of President of the United States unless he be now a Citizen of one of the States, or hereafter be born a Citizen of the United States.”

Many of the founders and framers had a fear of foreign influence on the person who would in the future be President of the United States since this particular office was singularly and uniquely powerful under the proposed new Constitution. The President was also to be the Commander in Chief of the military. This fear of foreign influence on a future President and Commander in Chief was particularly strongly felt by John Jay, who later became the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He felt so strongly about the issue of potential foreign influence that he took it upon himself to draft a letter to General George Washington, the presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention, recommending/hinting that the framers should strengthen the Citizenship requirements. John Jay was an avid reader and proponent of natural law and particularly Vattel’s codification of Natural Law and the Law of Nations. In his letter to Washington he said that the Citizenship requirement for the office of the commander of our armies should contain a “strong check” against foreign influence and he recommended to Washington that the command of the military be open only to a “natural born Citizen”. Thus Jay did not agree that simply being a “born Citizen” or “born a Citizen” was sufficient enough protection from foreign influence in the singular most powerful office in the new form of government. He wanted another adjective added to the eligibility clause, i.e., ‘natural’. And that word natural goes to the Citizenship status of one’s parents, both of them, when their child is born, as per natural law.

The below is the relevant proposed change language from Jay’s letter which he proposed to strengthen the citizenship requirements in Article II and to require more than just being a “born Citizen” of the United States to serve as a future Commander in Chief and President.

John Jay wrote in a letter to George Washington dated 25 Jul 1787:

“Permit me to hint, whether it would be wise and seasonable to provide a strong check to the admission of Foreigners into the administration of our national Government; and to declare expressly that the Commander in Chief of the American army shall not be given to nor devolve on, any but a natural born Citizen. “

See a transcription of Jay’s letter to Washington at this link. This letter from Jay was written on July 25, 1787. General Washington passed on the recommendation from Jay to the convention and it was adopted in the final draft and was accepted adding the adjective “natural” making it “natural born Citizen of the United States” for future Presidents and Commanders in Chief of the military, rather than Hamilton’s proposed “born a Citizen”. Thus Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the U.S. Constitution, the fundamental law of our nation reads:

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of U.S. Constitution as adopted 17 Sep 1787:

“No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.”

There you have the crux of the issue now before the nation and the answer.

Hamilton’s suggested presidential citizenship eligibility requirement was that a Citizen simply had to be ‘born a Citizen’ of the USA, i.e., a Citizen by Birth. But that citizenship status was rejected by the framers as insufficient. Instead of allowing any person “born a citizen” to be President and Commander of the military, the framers chose to adopt the more stringent requirement recommended by John Jay, i.e., requiring the Citizen to be a “natural born Citizen“, to block any chance of the person with foreign allegiances or claims on their allegiance at birth from becoming President and Commander of the Military. No person having any foreign influence or claim of allegiance on them at birth could serve as a future President. The person must be a “natural born citizen” with unity of citizenship and sole allegiance to the United States at birth.

Jay’s proposal recommended clause added the additional adjective before “born Citizen” that was proposed by Hamilton. And that word and adjective “natural” means something special from the laws of nature that modifies just being born a Citizen of the USA such as being simply born on the soil of the United States. Natural means from nature by the facts of nature of one’s birth. Not created retroactively after the fact by a man-made law. A natural born Citizen needs no man-made law to bestow Citizenship on them. The added adjective “natural” comes from Natural Law which is recognized the world over as universal law and which is the foundation of the Law of Nations which was codified by Vattel in 1758 in his preeminent legal treatise used by the founders, The Law of Nations or Principles of Natural Law. In Vol.1 Chapter 19 of Vattel’s Law of Nations, the “Des citoyens et naturels“, Vattel in Section 212 explains to us (the French term “naturels” was translated to English in 1781 in the Journal of the Continental Congress and in the 1797 English edition of Vattel), to tell us that the “natural born Citizens” are those born in the country to parents (plural) who are Citizens of the country when their child is born. These are the natural Citizens of the nation per universal principles of natural law for which no man-made law is necessary to explain or justify. Such a person, a natural born Citizen, is born with unity of Citizenship and sole allegiance at birth due to having been both born on the soil AND being born to two Citizen parents. The person who would be President must be a second generation American with no foreign claims of allegiance on them at birth under the law of nations and natural law, the child of two Citizens and born in the USA. This is a much stronger check to foreign influence than simply being born a Citizen say on the soil of the USA but with one or the other parent being a foreigner, such as is the case of Obama. The situation with Obama’s birth Citizenship status is exactly the problem that the founders and framers did not want. They did not want the child of a foreign national, non-U.S. citizen serving as President and Commander of our military. This was a national security concern to them. And it is a national security concern now.

Another founder of our nation and great historian of the American Revolution named David Ramsay contemporaneously defined in a 1789 essay what the term “natural born Citizen” means. Read a copy of Ramsay’s original dissertation at this link. Other research papers from history on the term “natural born Citizen” published long before the current controversy was created by the 2008 election debacle can be read at this link. The paper by Breckenridge Long in 1916 is a particularly good one.

Barack Hussein Obama II may or may not be a born Citizen of the USA depending on what the 1961 contemporaneous birth registration documents sealed in Hawaii reveal. And Americans have good reason to be greatly concerned about the truth as to where he was physically born as opposed to where his birth may have been falsely registered by his maternal grandmother as occurring in Hawaii as this Catalog of Evidence details. But he can never be a “natural born Citizen of the United States” since his father was a foreigner, a British Subject who was never a U.S. Citizen and was not even an immigrant to the USA. Since his father was a British Subject and not a U.S. Citizen when Obama was born, Obama was born a British Subject. The founders and framers are probably rolling over in their graves knowing this person was sworn in as the putative President and Commander of our military.

The founders rejected acquisition of Citizenship by birth on the soil without consideration as to who were the parents. That is clear from the history and evolution of the writing the eligibility clause in Article II, Section 1, Clause 5, which specifies who can be President and Commander in Chief of the military.

So, can a “born Citizen” be President of the USA? The answer is a resounding NO per the founders and framers. Being a “born Citizen the United States” is a necessary but NOT sufficient part of being a “natural born Citizen of the United States”. Natural born Citizens are a subset of “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” but not all “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” are “natural born Citizens”: https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/of-natural-born-citizens-and-citizens-at-birth-and-basic-logic-trees-are-plants-but-not-all-plants-are-trees-natural-born-citizens-nbc-are-citizens-at-birth-cab-but-not-all-cab/  Only a “natural born Citizen” can be the President of the USA and Commander in Chief of our military. Obama is not a natural born Citizen of the USA and is thus constitutionally eligible (to constitutional standards) to serve as President and Commander in Chief of the military.

SBTP Dolly Madison Quote du Jour,
” The Constitution was signed  September 17, 1787, by 39 brave men who changed the world.”

HAPPY CONSTITUTION DAY!

CDR Charles Kerchner, P.E. (Retired)
https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com
http://www.protectourliberty.org
http://www.scribd.com/protectourliberty/collections/

P.S. Here is a chart which lists and explains the five (5) Citizenship terms used in the U.S. Constitution.
P.P.S. Being a “born Citizen” or “Citizen at Birth” is not identically the same as a being a “natural born Citizen”.
P.P.P.S. Obama is NOT a “natural born Citizen of the United States” to U.S. Constitutional standards. Read this essay regarding the legal term of art “natural born Citizen” and basic logic, i.e., trees are plants but not all plants are trees. Natural born Citizens are a subset of “born Citizens (citizens at birth)”.  All “natural born Citizens” are “born Citizens (citizens at birth) but not all “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” are “natural born Citizens”:  https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/of-natural-born-citizens-and-citizens-at-birth-and-basic-logic-trees-are-plants-but-not-all-plants-are-trees-natural-born-citizens-nbc-are-citizens-at-birth-cab-but-not-all-cab/   Also read the “Three Legged Stool Test” for Natural Born Citizen https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2013/11/15/the-three-legged-stool-test-analogy-for-natural-born-citizenship-of-the-united-states-to-constitutional-standards/ … AND … http://www.art2superpac.com/issues.html  Also watch this video by the renowned constitutional scholar Dr. Herb Titus: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=esiZZ-1R7e8

September 17, 2013

Constitution Day – 17 Sep 2013: A Lesson from History. Is Being a Born Citizen of the United States Sufficient Citizenship Status to be President? The Founders and Framers Emphatically Decided It Was Not! | by CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret)

Constitution Day – 17 Sep 2013: A Lesson from History. Is Being Born a Citizen (Citizen at/by Birth) of the United States of Sufficient Citizenship Status to be President of the United States and Commander in Chief of Our Military? The Founders and Framers Emphatically Decided … It Was Not!

By: CDR Charles F. Kerchner, Jr., (Retired)
17 September 2013 – Constitution Day

During the process of developing a new U.S. Constitution Alexander Hamilton submitted a suggested draft for a Constitution on June 18, 1787. At some point, he also suggested to the framers a proposal for the qualification requirements in Article II as to the necessary Citizenship status for the office of President and Commander in Chief of the Military.

Alexander Hamilton’s suggested presidential eligibility clause:

“No person shall be eligible to the office of President of the United States unless he be now a Citizen of one of the States, or hereafter be born a Citizen of the United States.”

Many of the founders and framers had a fear of foreign influence on the person who would in the future be President of the United States since this particular office was singularly and uniquely powerful under the proposed new Constitution. The President was also to be the Commander in Chief of the military. This fear of foreign influence on a future President and Commander in Chief was particularly strongly felt by John Jay, who later became the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He felt so strongly about the issue of potential foreign influence that he took it upon himself to draft a letter to General George Washington, the presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention, recommending/hinting that the framers should strengthen the Citizenship requirements. John Jay was an avid reader and proponent of natural law and particularly Vattel’s codification of Natural Law and the Law of Nations. In his letter to Washington he said that the Citizenship requirement for the office of the commander of our armies should contain a “strong check” against foreign influence and he recommended to Washington that the command of the military be open only to a “natural born Citizen”. Thus Jay did not agree that simply being a “born Citizen” or “born a Citizen” was sufficient enough protection from foreign influence in the singular most powerful office in the new form of government. He wanted another adjective added to the eligibility clause, i.e., ‘natural’. And that word natural goes to the Citizenship status of one’s parents, both of them, when their child is born, as per natural law.

The below is the relevant proposed change language from Jay’s letter which he proposed to strengthen the citizenship requirements in Article II and to require more than just being a “born Citizen” of the United States to serve as a future Commander in Chief and President.

John Jay wrote in a letter to George Washington dated 25 Jul 1787:

“Permit me to hint, whether it would be wise and seasonable to provide a strong check to the admission of Foreigners into the administration of our national Government; and to declare expressly that the Commander in Chief of the American army shall not be given to nor devolve on, any but a natural born Citizen. “

See a transcription of Jay’s letter to Washington at this link. This letter from Jay was written on July 25, 1787. General Washington passed on the recommendation from Jay to the convention and it was adopted in the final draft and was accepted adding the adjective “natural” making it “natural born Citizen of the United States” for future Presidents and Commanders in Chief of the military, rather than Hamilton’s proposed “born a Citizen”. Thus Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the U.S. Constitution, the fundamental law of our nation reads:

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of U.S. Constitution as adopted 17 Sep 1787:

“No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.”

There you have the crux of the issue now before the nation and the answer.

Hamilton’s suggested presidential citizenship eligibility requirement was that a Citizen simply had to be ‘born a Citizen’ of the USA, i.e., a Citizen by Birth. But that citizenship status was rejected by the framers as insufficient. Instead of allowing any person “born a citizen” to be President and Commander of the military, the framers chose to adopt the more stringent requirement recommended by John Jay, i.e., requiring the Citizen to be a “natural born Citizen“, to block any chance of the person with foreign allegiances or claims on their allegiance at birth from becoming President and Commander of the Military. No person having any foreign influence or claim of allegiance on them at birth could serve as a future President. The person must be a “natural born citizen” with unity of citizenship and sole allegiance to the United States at birth.

Jay’s proposal recommended clause added the additional adjective before “born Citizen” that was proposed by Hamilton. And that word and adjective “natural” means something special from the laws of nature that modifies just being born a Citizen of the USA such as being simply born on the soil of the United States. Natural means from nature by the facts of nature of one’s birth. Not created retroactively after the fact by a man-made law. A natural born Citizen needs no man-made law to bestow Citizenship on them. The added adjective “natural” comes from Natural Law which is recognized the world over as universal law and which is the foundation of the Law of Nations which was codified by Vattel in 1758 in his preeminent legal treatise used by the founders, The Law of Nations or Principles of Natural Law. In Vol.1 Chapter 19 of Vattel’s Law of Nations, the “Des citoyens et naturels“, Vattel in Section 212 explains to us (the French term “naturels” was translated to English in 1781 in the Journal of the Continental Congress and in the 1797 English edition of Vattel), to tell us that the “natural born Citizens” are those born in the country to parents (plural) who are Citizens of the country when their child is born. These are the natural Citizens of the nation per universal principles of natural law for which no man-made law is necessary to explain or justify. Such a person, a natural born Citizen, is born with unity of Citizenship and sole allegiance at birth due to having been both born on the soil AND being born to two Citizen parents. The person who would be President must be a second generation American with no foreign claims of allegiance on them at birth under the law of nations and natural law, the child of two Citizens and born in the USA. This is a much stronger check to foreign influence than simply being born a Citizen say on the soil of the USA but with one or the other parent being a foreigner, such as is the case of Obama. The situation with Obama’s birth Citizenship status is exactly the problem that the founders and framers did not want. They did not want the child of a foreign national, non-U.S. citizen serving as President and Commander of our military. This was a national security concern to them. And it is a national security concern now.

Another founder of our nation and great historian of the American Revolution named David Ramsay contemporaneously defined in a 1789 essay what the term “natural born Citizen” means. Read a copy of Ramsay’s original dissertation at this link. Other research papers from history on the term “natural born Citizen” published long before the current controversy was created by the 2008 election debacle can be read at this link. The paper by Breckenridge Long in 1916 is a particularly good one.

Barack Hussein Obama II may or may not be a born Citizen of the USA depending on what the 1961 contemporaneous birth registration documents sealed in Hawaii reveal. And Americans have good reason to be greatly concerned about the truth as to where he was physically born as opposed to where his birth may have been falsely registered by his maternal grandmother as occurring in Hawaii as this Catalog of Evidence details. But he can never be a “natural born Citizen of the United States” since his father was a foreigner, a British Subject who was never a U.S. Citizen and was not even an immigrant to the USA. Since his father was a British Subject and not a U.S. Citizen when Obama was born, Obama was born a British Subject. The founders and framers are probably rolling over in their graves knowing this person was sworn in as the putative President and Commander of our military.

The founders rejected acquisition of Citizenship by birth on the soil without consideration as to who were the parents. That is clear from the history and evolution of the writing the eligibility clause in Article II, Section 1, Clause 5, which specifies who can be President and Commander in Chief of the military.

So, can a “born Citizen” be President of the USA? The answer is a resounding NO per the founders and framers. Being a “born Citizen the United States” is a necessary but NOT sufficient part of being a “natural born Citizen of the United States”. Natural born Citizens are a subset of “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” but not all “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” are “natural born Citizens”: https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/of-natural-born-citizens-and-citizens-at-birth-and-basic-logic-trees-are-plants-but-not-all-plants-are-trees-natural-born-citizens-nbc-are-citizens-at-birth-cab-but-not-all-cab/  Only a “natural born Citizen” can be the President of the USA and Commander in Chief of our military. Obama is not a natural born Citizen of the USA and is thus constitutionally eligible (to constitutional standards) to serve as President and Commander in Chief of the military.

SBTP Dolly Madison Quote du Jour,
” The Constitution was signed  September 17, 1787, by 39 brave men who changed the world.”

HAPPY CONSTITUTION DAY!

CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret)
https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com
http://www.protectourliberty.org

P.S. Here is a chart which lists and explains the five (5) Citizenship terms used in the U.S. Constitution.
P.P.S. Being a “born Citizen” or “Citizen at Birth” is not identically the same as a being a “natural born Citizen”.
P.P.S. Also read this essay regarding the legal term of art “natural born Citizen” and basic logic, i.e., trees are plants but not all plants are trees.  Natural born Citizens are a subset of “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” but not all “born Citizens (citizens at birth)” are “natural born Citizens”: https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/of-natural-born-citizens-and-citizens-at-birth-and-basic-logic-trees-are-plants-but-not-all-plants-are-trees-natural-born-citizens-nbc-are-citizens-at-birth-cab-but-not-all-cab/ … AND … http://www.art2superpac.com/issues.html

September 17, 2012

Constitution Day – 17 Sep 2012: A Lesson from History. Is Being a Born Citizen of the United States Sufficient Citizenship Status to be President? The Founders and Framers Emphatically Decided It Was Not! | by CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret)

Constitution Day – 17 Sep 2012: A Lesson from History. Is Being a Born Citizen of the United States of Sufficient Citizenship Status to be President of the United States and Commander in Chief of Our Military? The Founders and Framers Emphatically Decided … It Was Not!

By: CDR Charles F. Kerchner, Jr., (Retired)
17 September 2012 – Constitution Day

During the process of developing a new U.S. Constitution Alexander Hamilton submitted a suggested draft for a Constitution on June 18, 1787. He also submitted to the framers a proposal for the qualification requirements in Article II as to the necessary Citizenship status for the office of President and Commander in Chief of the Military.

Alexander Hamilton’s suggested presidential eligibility clause:

“No person shall be eligible to the office of President of the United States unless he be now a Citizen of one of the States, or hereafter be born a Citizen of the United States.”

Many of the founders and framers had a fear of foreign influence on the person who would in the future be President of the United States since this particular office was singularly and uniquely powerful under the proposed new Constitution. The President was also to be the Commander in Chief of the military. This fear of foreign influence on a future President and Commander in Chief was particularly strongly felt by John Jay, who later became the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He felt so strongly about the issue of potential foreign influence that he took it upon himself to draft a letter to General George Washington, the presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention, recommending/hinting that the framers should strengthen the Citizenship requirements. John Jay was an avid reader and proponent of natural law and particularly Vattel’s codification of natural law and the Law of Nations. In his letter to Washington he said that the Citizenship requirement for the office of the commander of our armies should contain a “strong check” against foreign influence and he recommended to Washington that the command of the military be open only to a “natural born Citizen”. Thus Jay did not agree that simply being a “born Citizen” was sufficient enough protection from foreign influence in the singular most powerful office in the new form of government. He wanted another adjective added to the eligibility clause, i.e., ‘natural’. And that word natural goes to the Citizenship status of one’s parents via natural law.

The below is the relevant proposed change language from Jay’s letter which he proposed to strengthen the citizenship requirements in Article II and to require more than just being a “born Citizen” of the United States to serve as a future Commander in Chief and President.

John Jay wrote in a letter to George Washington dated 25 Jul 1787:

“Permit me to hint, whether it would be wise and seasonable to provide a strong check to the admission of Foreigners into the administration of our national Government; and to declare expressly that the Commander in Chief of the American army shall not be given to nor devolve on, any but a natural born Citizen. “

See a transcription of Jay’s letter to Washington at this link. This letter from Jay was written on July 25, 1787. General Washington passed on the recommendation from Jay to the convention and it was adopted in the final draft and was accepted adding the adjective “natural” making it “natural born Citizen of the United States” for future Presidents and Commanders in Chief of the military, rather than Hamilton’s proposed “born a Citizen”. Thus Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the U.S. Constitution, the fundamental law of our nation reads:

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of U.S. Constitution as adopted 17 Sep 1787:

“No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.”

There you have the crux of the issue now before the nation and the answer.

Hamilton’s suggested presidential citizenship eligibility requirement was that a Citizen simply had to be ‘born a Citizen’ of the USA, i.e., a Citizen by Birth. But that citizenship status was rejected by the framers as insufficient. Instead of allowing any person “born a citizen” to be President and Commander of the military, the framers chose to adopt the more stringent requirement recommended by John Jay, i.e., requiring the Citizen to be a “natural born Citizen“, to block any chance of the person with foreign allegiances or claims on their allegiance at birth from becoming President and Commander of the Military. No person having any foreign influence or claim of allegiance on them at birth could serve as a future President. The person must be a “natural born citizen” with unity of citizenship and sole allegiance to the United States at birth.

Jay’s proposal recommended clause added the additional adjective before “born Citizen” that was proposed by Hamilton. And that word and adjective “natural” means something special from the laws of nature that modifies just being born a Citizen of the USA such as being simply born on the soil of the United States. Natural means from nature by the facts of nature of one’s birth. Not created retroactively after the fact by a man-made law. A natural born Citizen needs no man-made law to bestow Citizenship on them. The added adjective “natural” comes from Natural Law which is recognized the world over as universal law and which is the foundation of the Law of Nations which was codified by Vattel in 1758 in his preeminent legal treatise used by the founders, The Law of Nations or Principles of Natural Law. In Vol.1 Chapter 19 of Vattel’s Law of Nations, the “Des citoyens et naturels“, Vattel in Section 212 explains to us (the French term “naturels” was translated to English in 1781 in the Journal of the Continental Congress and in the 1797 English edition of Vattel), to tell us that the “natural born Citizens” are those born in the country to parents (plural) who are Citizens of the country when their child is born. These are the natural Citizens of the nation per universal principles of natural law for which no man-made law is necessary to explain or justify. Such a person, a natural born Citizen, is born with unity of Citizenship and sole allegiance at birth due to having been both born on the soil AND being born to two Citizen parents. The person who would be President must be a second generation American with no foreign claims of allegiance on them at birth under the law of nations and natural law, the child of two Citizens and born in the USA. This is a much stronger check to foreign influence than simply being born a Citizen say on the soil of the USA but with one or the other parent being a foreigner, such as is the case of Obama. The situation with Obama’s birth Citizenship status is exactly the problem that the founders and framers did not want. They did not want the child of a foreign national, non-U.S. citizen serving as President and Commander of our military. This was a national security concern to them. And it is a national security concern now.

Another founder of our nation and great historian of the American Revolution named David Ramsay contemporaneously defined in a 1789 essay what the term “natural born Citizen” means. Read a copy of Ramsay’s original dissertation at this link. Other research papers from history on the term “natural born Citizen” published long before the current controversy was created by the 2008 election debacle can be read at this link. The paper by Breckenridge Long in 1916 is a particularly good one.

Barack Hussein Obama II may or may not be a born Citizen of the USA depending on what the 1961 contemporaneous birth registration documents sealed in Hawaii reveal. And Americans have good reason to be greatly concerned about the truth as to where he was physically born as opposed to where his birth may have been falsely registered by his maternal grandmother as occurring in Hawaii as this Catalog of Evidence details. But he can never be a “natural born Citizen of the United States” since his father was a foreigner, a British Subject who was never a U.S. Citizen and was not even an immigrant to the USA. Since his father was a British Subject and not a U.S. Citizen when Obama was born, Obama was born a British Subject. The founders and framers are probably rolling over in their graves knowing this person was sworn in as the putative President and Commander of our military.

The founders rejected acquisition of Citizenship by birth on the soil without consideration as to who were the parents. That is clear from the history and evolution of the writing the eligibility clause in Article II, Section 1, Clause 5, which specifies who can be President and Commander in Chief of the military.

So, can a “born Citizen” be President of the USA? The answer is a resounding NO per the founders and framers. Being a “born Citizen the United States” is a necessary but NOT sufficient part of being a “natural born Citizen of the United States”. But only a “natural born Citizen” can be the President of the USA. Obama is not constitutionally eligible (to constitutional standards) to serve as President and Commander in Chief of the military.

SBTP Dolly Madison Quote du Jour,
” The Constitution was signed  September 17, 1787, by 39 brave men who changed the world.”

HAPPY CONSTITUTION DAY!

CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret)
https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com
http://www.protectourliberty.org

P.S. Here is a chart which lists and explains the five (5) Citizenship terms used in the U.S. Constitution.
P.P.S. Being a “born Citizen” or “Citizen at Birth” is not identically the same as a being a “natural born Citizen”.

June 28, 2012

It’s Deja Vu All Over Again with Chief Justice Roberts — A Statement from CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret) about the U.S. Supreme Court Decision

With “CINO” (Conservative in Name Only) Chief Justice Roberts and his Neville Chamberlain leadership of the Supreme Court it is Deja Vu all over again.  Roberts has been the problem all along in allowing our Constitution to be trampled by Obama – in particular Article II Section 1 Clause 5.  Now Roberts has done it again — siding with the liberal wing of the court to “Move Forward” Obama’s fascist and socialist agenda to socialize America and ignore our  constitutional republic system of government to help Obama “Move Forward” to a dictatorial federal fascist socialist form of government.  See below post from the fall of 2010.

# # # #

Originally Written & Posted Online by CDR Kerchner @ Puzo1.BlogSpot.com:  Monday, November 29, 2010 @ 2:57 PM

A Statement from CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret) about the U.S. Supreme Court Decision on Kerchner et al v Obama & Congress et al

For Immediate Release – 29 November 2010 2:30 p.m. EST

A Statement from CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret) about the U.S. Supreme Court Decision on Kerchner et al v Obama & Congress et al

The “Roberts Court” of the U.S. Supreme Court in my opinion will be known in history as the “Neville Chamberlain Supreme Court”, the great Obama appeaser court. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neville_Chamberlain
Appeasement due to fear that some immediate small amount of veiled and threatened violence from the far left socialists and Saul Alinsky goons, tyrants and bullies, and thus not doing the right thing early on to support the rule of law and the Constitution, ultimately leads to much bigger problems later. History has shown us that over and over. The Obama eligibility matter should have been fully and thoroughly addressed and openly investigated by the investigative reporters in the major media and political parties early in the spring of 2008 during the primaries to get all of Obama’s documents released to the public as part of the vetting process. It wasn’t done.
 
Congress should have addressed this when asked by 100s of thousands of constituent letters and petitions sent to them and when constitutionally it was required to so under the 20th Amendment. It didn’t. The courts should have addressed the merits of the questions when appealed to early on. They didn’t. Everyone in our system of government chose ignoring the problem and appeasement over confrontation and punted the ball to someone else. Now it is far worse. The Supreme Court has chosen appeasement and inaction over action and dealing with the issue and questions openly in a court of law under the rules of evidence and law. Our constitutional republic and legal system is now compromised and broken top to bottom and bottom to top. And it will only get worse as our legal system and constitutional republic further deteriorates and the rule of law gives way more and more to appeasement of bullies and tyrants in waiting such as Obama and his far left Marxist cronies and puppet masters. Appeasement of the constitutional usurpers will not make it go away. It will only delay the inevitable and fester and grow and in the end be a far worse situation to deal with when the real nature of the tyrant reveals himself in a much bolder way and attempts to take away all our protections to our unalienable rights and liberty. Neville Chamberlain tactics never work with bullies, alinskyites, tyrants, and national socialists.
The U.S. Supreme Court orders were posted at 10:00 a.m. on 29 Nov 2010. See below. Certiorari for our case was denied. The two justices appointed by Obama who in my opinion had a direct financial conflict of interest (their very jobs and appointments to the court) in the outcome of this petition and case did not recuse themselves even though they should have! Their recusal was called for in our petition on page 36 with the relevant U.S. Code cited. The two justices and the court ignored that. There were recusals declared by these two Obama appointees in many other petitions including the one immediately before our petition in the orders list and the one immediately after. Imo, apparently the court needed all nine justices in the room to kill the petition. With the full court of 9 justices it’s the rule/vote of 4 to grant certiorari to move the case forward. With two recusals that would have left only 7 justices and it’s then the rule/vote of 3 to grant certiorari to move the case forward. For information on the Rule of 3 see:  Supreme Court Practices, 9th edition, by Eugene Cressman, et al, page 324. The lawsuit Pryor v United States (1971) is an example case of the Rule of 3 being used.  I suspect the water cooler buzz at SCOTUS was that 3 justices were leaning for granting certiorari. So it looks like Sotomayer and Kagan ignored ethical considerations and stayed in the review of the petition to be sure it got killed, i.e., to be in that room to argue against Certiorari, and to require 4 votes to grant cert instead of 3 … financial conflict of interest and ethics be damned by those two justices. JMHO.

10-446
KERCHNER, CHARLES, ET AL. V. OBAMA, PRESIDENT OF U.S., ET AL.
The motion of Western Center for Journalism for leave to file a brief as amicus curiae is granted.
The petition for a writ of certiorari is denied.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/44359775/U-S-Supreme-Court-Order-List-562-U-S-dated-2010-11-29-Kerchner-v-Obama-Petition-Decison-on-Pg-15

CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret)
Lehigh Valley PA USA
Lead Plaintiff, Kerchner et al v Obama et al
http://www.protectourliberty.org
http://puzo1.blogspot.com
####

March 14, 2012

CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret) was Guest on the Howie Mandel Radio Show hosted by Jim ‘Howie’ Mandel – Wed 14 Mar 2012, 10:00 ET

CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret) was Guest on the Howie Mandel Radio Show hosted by Jim ‘Howie’ Mandel – Wed 14 Mar 2012, 10:00 ET

Listen to it on podcast at:  http://www.blogtalkradio.com/howieunveilsgodsshield/2012/03/14/jim-howie-mandel-jr-march-9th-2012

CDR Charles Kerchner (Ret)
Lehigh Valley PA USA
https://cdrkerchner.wordpress.com/
http://www.protectourliberty.org/
http://www.scribd.com/protectourliberty/collections/

“The American people will never knowingly adopt Socialism. But under the name of liberalism they will adopt every fragment of the Socialist program, until one day America will be a Socialist nation without knowing how it happened.” Ronald Reagan alerting us to Norman Thomas’ and the socialist/progressives’ long-term stealth agenda to transform the USA from a constitutional republic into a top-down, central controlled, socialist form of government

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